zhenbo

ISSN 2096-7780 CN 10-1665/P

留言板

尊敬的读者、作者、审稿人, 关于本刊的投稿、审稿、编辑和出版的任何问题, 您可以本页添加留言。我们将尽快给您答复。谢谢您的支持!

姓名
邮箱
手机号码
标题
留言内容
验证码

GPS观测到的智利及其邻区多次大地震前后地壳运动

顾国华 王武星

顾国华, 王武星. GPS观测到的智利及其邻区多次大地震前后地壳运动[J]. 地震科学进展, 2022, (5): 222-231. doi: 10.19987/j.dzkxjz.2021-086
引用本文: 顾国华, 王武星. GPS观测到的智利及其邻区多次大地震前后地壳运动[J]. 地震科学进展, 2022, (5): 222-231. doi: 10.19987/j.dzkxjz.2021-086
Gu Guohua, Wang Wuxing. Crustal movements before and after several earthquakes in Chile and its neighborhood detected by GPS observations[J]. Progress in Earthquake Sciences, 2022, (5): 222-231. doi: 10.19987/j.dzkxjz.2021-086
Citation: Gu Guohua, Wang Wuxing. Crustal movements before and after several earthquakes in Chile and its neighborhood detected by GPS observations[J]. Progress in Earthquake Sciences, 2022, (5): 222-231. doi: 10.19987/j.dzkxjz.2021-086

GPS观测到的智利及其邻区多次大地震前后地壳运动

doi: 10.19987/j.dzkxjz.2021-086
基金项目: 中国地震局老专家科研基金课题资助。
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    顾国华(1944-),男,教授,主要从事GPS数据处理、地壳运动和地震预测研究。E-mail:ggh@seis.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: P315.72+5

Crustal movements before and after several earthquakes in Chile and its neighborhood detected by GPS observations

  • 摘要: 2001年以来,智利及其邻区发生了3次7.1—7.7级和4次8级以上大地震,其震中附近至少有一个甚至多个GPS连续观测站观测到地震前后的地壳运动。从http://geodesy.unr.edu网站可获得GeoffreyBlewitt教授用GIPSY软件处理得到的南美大量GPS连续观测站南美板块(SA)区域参考框架位移时间序列,获得的这些大地震同震、震前位移积累和震后位移,特别是同震水平位移和震前水平位移积累,为探索地震预测,增添了更多有意义的震例。研究表明,这些大地震的同震水平位移也是震前水平位移积累的回跳或弹性回跳,同样也证明了震前存在前兆地壳形变;这些大地震前震中及其附近也无明显的垂直位移积累,由此证明了板块运动或地壳水平运动就是地震成因。尽管东日本和智利近海大地震的构造环境不同,日本2011年9级和智利2010年8.8级巨大地震前的地壳运动都清楚显示太平洋海底扩张。这些地震的同震水平位移回跳或弹性回跳的规律一致,地震成因都是水平挤压。智利多次大地震GPS观测到的最特殊现象是,在2015年8.3级地震震中以北,2010年8.8级地震的同震水平位移量值偏小,且方向异常一致向北,可认为是8.3级地震的前兆形变现象。临近智利的南美地区应是全球最利于地震预测探索的地区之一。

     

  • 图  1  智利近海及其邻近区域的大地震 (大蓝点),附近的GPS连续观测站 (小的彩色点)。图右侧是表示GPS观测站大地高程的色码。黑色站名是本文位移时间序列所显示的12个GPS连续观测站

    Figure  1.  Large earthquakes (big blue dot) and GPS stations of continuous observations (small color dot) in Chile and its neighborhood near the events. On the right side is the color bar for the geodetic heights at the GPS stations. 12 GPS stations of continuous observations with displacement time series shown in this paper are marked with station code in black color

    图  2  智利近海及其邻近区域多次大地震同震水平 (左图)与垂直 (右图)位移。各图左下角为位移向量比例尺

    Figure  2.  Coseismic horizontal displacements (left figure) and vertical displacements (right figure) of the large earthquakes in Chile and its neighborhood. The displacement vector scale is shown at the bottom left of each figure

    图  3  智利2010年8.8级大地震的同震水平位移。左下角为水平位移向量比例尺

    Figure  3.  Coseismic horizontal displacements of the 2010 earthquake of M8.8 in Chile. The displacement vector scale is shown at the bottom left of the figure

    图  4  智利近海等多次大地震附近南美洲12个GPS连续观测站3个位移分量和水平位移向量时间序列,位移单位均为mm。左图为3个分量,即水平位移东西 (E,棕色) 和南北 (N,红色) 分量与垂直 (U,蓝色) 位移时间序列,图上方标出了有明显同震位移的地震震级和相应的以km为单位的震中距。右图为水平位移向量时间序列,图右侧为用GPS周表示日期的色码

    Figure  4.  Time series of 3 displacement components (left figure) and horizontal displacement vectors (right figure) in mm at 12 stations of continuous GPS observations in South America near the large earthquakes in Chile and its neighborhood. The 3 displacement components are the east horizontal component E in brown, north horizontal component N in red and vertical component U in blue. At the top of the figures of 3 displacement components, the magnitudes of the earthquakes and the epicentral distances of the stations in km are shown. On the right side of each vector figure the color bar shows the date in GPS week for time series of the horizontal displacement vectors

    表  1  2001年至今智利近海多次大地震统计

    Table  1.   Statistics of earthquakes occurred in Chile and its neighborhood since 2001

    发震日期震级南纬/°西经/°震源深度/km
    2001-06-238.4*16.26573.64133.0
    2007-11-147.722.24769.89040.0
    2010-02-278.8 35.84672.71935.0
    2012-03-257.1* 35.20072.21740.7
    2014-04-018.219.61070.76925.0
    2015-09-168.331.57371.67422.4
    2016-12-257.6*43.40673.94138.0
    2017-04-246.9*33.03872.06228.0
    2019-09-296.7*35.47673.16311.0
    2020-09-016.827.96971.30621.0
    2021-01-196.4*31.83368.79920.8
    *表示地震附近仅有一个GPS连续观测站有显著的同震和震前水平位移
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  12个GPS连续观测站得到的不同地震同震水平位移

    Table  2.   Coseismic horizontal displacements observed at 12 stations of continuous GPS observations for earthquakes of different magnitudes

    站名震级震中距/km同震水平位移/mm 站名震级震中距/km同震水平位移/mm
    CONS8.8644712.7 CSLO8.3226102.6
    CONS7.11761.1CSLO6.44820.2
    CONS6.77010.6VALN8.316113.3
    MAUL8.81711054.5VALN6.94051.2
    ANTC8.8197779.5AREQ8.4231507.3
    SANT8.8353283.0PTRE8.220176.0
    SANT8.319925.6CDLC7.715128.9
    LSCH8.3189200.2TPYU7.615320.7
    CSLO8.855033.6LLCH6.83316.3
    下载: 导出CSV
  • [1] 顾国华,王武星. GPS观测得到的大地震前兆地壳形变震例[J]. 地震科学进展,2020,50(10):30-39

    Gu G H, Wang W X. Case studies on GPS observations and crustal deformation precursors to strong earthquakes[J]. Progress in Earthquake Sciences,2020,50(10):30-39
    [2] 顾国华. GPS-地震预测利器[M]//白春礼.科学与中国(十年辉煌 光耀神州): 气候与灾害科学技术集. 北京: 北京大学出版社, 2012: 130-150

    Gu G H. GPS-Useful technique for earthquake prediction[M]//Bai C L. Science and China: Science and technology for climate and disasters. Beijing: Peking University Press, 2012: 130-150
    [3] Gu G H, Wang W X. Advantages of GNSS in monitoring crustal deformation for detection of precursors to strong earthquakes[J]. Positioning, 2013, 4: 11-19
    [4] Blewitt G,Corné K,Hammond W C,et al. Terrestrial reference frame NA12 for crustal deformation studies in North America[J]. Journal of Geodynamics,2013,72:11-24 doi: 10.1016/j.jog.2013.08.004
    [5] 顾国华,王武星. GPS测得的2018年夏威夷6.9级地震与火山喷发地壳运动[J]. 武汉大学学报(信息科学版),2019,44(8):1191-1204

    Gu G H,Wang W X. Crustal motions observed from GPS observations for the earthquake of M6.9 and the eruption of the Kilauea Volcano in 2018[J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University,2019,44(8):1191-1204
    [6] 顾国华,王武星,占伟,等. 东日本MW9.0大地震前、同震及震后地壳水平运动[J]. 武汉大学学报(信息科学版),2015,40(12):1669-1676

    Gu G H,Wang W X,Zhan W,et al. Preseismic,coseismic and postseismic horizontal crustal movements of the MW9.0 Tohoku earthquake in 2011 in Japan[J]. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University,2015,40(12):1669-1676
    [7] 顾国华,王武星. 2016年日本本州近海MS7.2地震前后的地壳运动[J]. 地震学报,2020,42(2):196-204 doi: 10.11939/jass.20190096

    Gu G H, Wang W X. Crustal movements of the MS7.2 Honshu offshore earthquake in 2016 in Japan[J]. Acta Seismologica Sinica,2020,42(2):196-204 doi: 10.11939/jass.20190096
    [8] 顾国华,王武星,占伟,等. 芦山MS7.0大地震前水平位移和同震水平位移研究[J]. 地震学报,2015,37(1):53-64 doi: 10.11939/j.issn:0253-3782.2015.01.005

    Gu G H,Wang W X,Zhan W,et al. Preseismic and coseismic horizontal crustal movements of the 2013 MS7.0 Lushan earthquake in Sichuan[J]. Acta Seismologica Sinica,2015,37(1):53-64 doi: 10.11939/j.issn:0253-3782.2015.01.005
    [9] Blewitt G, Hammond W C, Kreemer C. Harnessing the GPS data explosion for interdisciplinary science[J]. Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union, 2018: 99
    [10] Wessel P,Smith W H. New version of the generic mapping tools released[J]. Eos Transactions American Geophysical Union,1995,76(47):329
  • 加载中
图(7) / 表(2)
计量
  • 文章访问数:  163
  • HTML全文浏览量:  67
  • PDF下载量:  30
  • 被引次数: 0
出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-30
  • 修回日期:  2021-12-08
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-12-24

目录

    /

    返回文章
    返回
    本系统由北京仁和汇智信息技术有限公司设计开发 百度统计